# Representing Data, Proofs, and Computations with Inductive Types

Earlier, we learned about defining new data types in F*. For example, here’s the type of lists parameterized by a type a of the list elements.

type list a =
| Nil  : list a
| Cons : hd:a -> tl:list a -> list a

We also saw that it was easy to define basic functions over these types, using pattern matching and recursion. For example, here’s a function to compute the length of a list.

let rec length #a (l:list a)
: nat
= match l with
| [] -> 0
| _ :: tl -> 1 + length tl

The function length defines some property of a list (its length) separately from the definition of the list type itself. Sometimes, however, it can be convenient to define a property of a type together with the type itself. For example, in some situations, it may be natural to define the length of the list together with the definition of the list type itself, so that every list is structurally equipped with a notion of its length. Here’s how:

type vec (a:Type) : nat -> Type =
| Nil : vec a 0
| Cons : #n:nat -> hd:a -> tl:vec a n -> vec a (n + 1)

What we have here is our first indexed type, vec a n. One way to understand this definition is that vec a : nat -> Type describes a family of types, vec a 0, vec a 1, … etc., all representing lists of a-typed elements, but where the index n describes the length of the list. With this definition of vec, the function length is redundant: given a v : vec a n we know that its length v is n, without having to recompute it.

This style of enriching a type definition with indexes to state properties of the type is reminiscent of what we learned earlier about intrinsic versus extrinsic proofs. Rather than defining a single type list a for all lists and then separatately (i.e., extrinsically) defining a function length to compute the length of a list, with vec we’ve enriched the type of the list intrinsically, so that type of vec immediately tells you its length.

Now, you may have seen examples like this length-indexed vec type before—it comes up often in tutorials about dependently typed programming. But, indexed types can do a lot more. In this section we learn about indexed inductive types from three related perspectives:

• Representing data: Inductive types allow us to build new data types, includes lists, vectors, trees, etc. in several flavors. We present two case studies: vectors and Merkle trees, a binary tree data structure equipped with cryptographic proofs.

• Representing proofs: The core logic of F* rests upon several simple inductive type definitions. We revisit the logical connectives we’ve seen before (including the propositional connectives and equality) and show how rather than being primitive notions in F*, their definitions arise from a few core constructions involving inductive type. Other core notions in the language, including the handling of termination proofs, can also be understood in terms of inductive types that model well-founded recursion.

• Representing computations: Inductive type definitions allow embedding other programming languages or computational models within F*. We develop two case studies.

• We develop a deep embedding of the simply-typed lambda calculus with several reduction strategies, and a proof of its syntactic type soundness. The example showcases the use of several inductive types to represent the syntax of a programming language, a relation describing its type system, and another relation describing its operational semantics.

• We also show how to use higher-order abstract syntax to represent well-typed lambda terms, a concise style that illustrates how to use inductive types that store functions.

• Finally, we look at a shallow embedding of an imperative programming language with structured concurrency, representing computations as infinitely branching inductively defined trees. The example introduces modeling computational effects as monads and showcases the use of inductive types at higher order.

This section is somewhat more advanced than the first. It also interleaves some technical material about F*’s core logic with case studies showing some of those core concepts at work. You can certainly work through the material sequentially, but depending on your interests, you may find the following paths through the material to be more accessible.

If you’re familiar with dependent types but are new to F* and want a quick tour, the following path might work for you:

If you’re unfamiliar with dependent types and are more curious to learn how to use F* by working through examples, following path might work for you:

But, by the end of this section, through several exercises, we expect the reader to be familiar enough with inductive types to define their own data structures and inductively defined relations, while also gaining a working knowledge of some core parts of F*’s type theory.